Vertical and Horizontal Planes

Paying attention to these can add much more interest to your design work. They help define the space, control views, guide movement through a site.

Vertical elements such as low retaining walls can provide a place to sit, elements such as hedges, bamboo, steps, retaining walls, embankments are all examples of vertical elements and add interest to a design. More obvious vertical elements are pergola posts, screens, brick walls etc.

Overhead elements such as interlocking canopies, an arbor, or slats over a pergola.

An avenue of plane trees evenly spaced with interlocking canopies combines both vertical and horizontal planes to change how the space is perceived.

Tip: Some designers recommend that vertical space should be at least 1/3 the length of the horizontal.